Servomotors are available as AC or DC motors. Early servomotors were generally DC motors because the only type of control for large currents was through SCRs for many years. As transistors became capable of controlling larger currents and switching the large currents at higher frequencies, the AC servomotor became used more often. Early servomotors were specifically designed for servo amplifiers. Today a class of motors is designed for applica-tions that may use a servo amplifier or a variable-frequency controller, which means that a motor may be used in a servo system in one application, and used in a variable-frequency drive in another application. Some companies also call any closed-loop system that does not use a stepper motor a servo system, so it is possible for a simple AC induction motor that is connected to a velocity controller to be called a servomotor.
Some changes that must be made to any motor that is designed as a servomotor in-cludes the ability to operate at a range of speeds without overheating, the ability to operate at zero speed and retain sufficient torque to hold a load in position, and the ability to operate at very low speeds for long periods of time without overheating. Older-type motors have cooling fans that are connected directly to the motor shaft. When the motor runs at slow speed, the fan does not move enough air to cool the motor. Newer motors have a separate fan mounted so it will provide optimum cooling air. This fan is powered by a con-stant voltage source so that it will turn at maximum RPM at all times regardless of the speed of the servomotor. One of the most usable types of motors in servo systems is the permanent magnet (PM) type motor. The voltage for the field winding of the permanent magnet type motor can be AC voltage or DC voltage. The permanent magnet-type motor is similar to other PM type motors presented previously. Figure shows a cutaway picture of a PM motor and Fig. shows a cutaway diagram of a PM motor. From the picture and diagram you can see the housing, rotor and stator all look very similar to the previous type PM motors. The major difference with this type of motor is that it may have gear reduction to be able to move larger loads quickly from a stand still position. This type of PM motor also has an encoder or resolver built into the motor housing. This ensures that the device will accurately indicate the position or velocity of the motor shaft.
FIGURE Typical PM servomotors
FIGURE Cutaway picture of a permanent magnet servomotor.
126.96.36.199 Brushless Servomotors
The brushless servomotor is designed to operate without brushes. This means that the commutation that the brushes provided must now be provided electronically. Electronic commutation is provided by switching transistors on and off at appropriate times. Figure shows three examples of the voltage and current waveforms that are sent to the brushless servomotor. Figure shows an example of the three windings of the brushless servomotor. The main point about the brushless servomo-tor is that it can be powered by either ac voltage or dc voltage.
Figure shows three types of voltage waveforms that can be used to power the brushless servomotor. Figure ll-85a shows a trapezoidal EMF (voltage) input and a square wave current input. Figure ll-85b shows a sinusoidal waveform for the input voltage and a square wave current waveform. Figure ll-85c shows a sinusoidal input waveform and a sinusoidal current waveform. The sinusoidal input and sinusoidal current waveform are the most popular voltage supplies for the brushless servomotor.
FIGURE (a) Trap-ezoidal input voltage and square wave current wave-forms. (b) Sinusoidal in-put voltage and sinusoidal voltage and square wave output voltage wave-forms. (c) Sinusoidal in-put voltage and sinusoi-dal current waveforms. This has become the most popular type of brushless servomotor control.
Figure shows three sets of transistors that are similar to the transistors in the output stage of the variable-frequency drive. In Fig. ll-86a the transistors are connected to the three windings of the motor in a similar manner as in the variable-frequency drive. In Fig. 1 l-86b the diagram of the waveforms for the output of the transistors is shown as three separate sinusoidal waves. The waveforms for the control circuit for the base of each transis-tor are shown in Fig. ll-86c. Figure ll-86d shows the back EMF for the drive waveforms.
FIGURE (a) Tran-sistors connected to the three windings of the brushless servomotor. (b) Waveforms of the three separate voltages that are used to power the three motor wind-ings. (c) Waveforms of the signals used to control the transistor se-quence that provides the waveforms for the previous diagram, (d) Waveform of the overall back EMF.
Servomotor controllers have become more than just amplifiers for a servomotor. Today servomotor controllers must be able to make a number of decisions and provide a means to receive signals from external sensors and controls in the system, and send signals to host controllers and PLCs that may interface with the servo system. Figure shows a picture of several servomotors and their amplifiers. The components in this picture look similar to a variety of other types of motors and controllers.
FIGURE Example servomotors and ampli-fiers.
Figure shows a diagram of the servomotor controller so that you can see some of the differences from other types of motor controllers. The controller in this diagram is for a DC servomotor. The controller has three ports that bring signals in or send signals out of the controller. The power supply, servomotor, and tachometer are connected to port P3 at the bottom of the controller. You can see that the supply voltage is 115-volt AC single phase. A main disconnect is connected in series with the LI wire. The LI and N lines supply power to an isolation step-down transformer. The secondary voltage of the trans-former can be any voltage between 20 and 85 volts. The controller is grounded at terminal 8. You should remember that the ground at this point is only used to provide protection against short circuits for all metal parts in the system.
The servomotor is connected to the controller at terminals 4 and 5. Terminal 5 is + and terminal 4 is —. Terminal 3 provides a ground for the shield of the wires 2013年that connect the motor and the controller. The tachometer is connected to terminals 1 and 2. Terminal 2 is + and terminal 1 is —. The shield for this cable is grounded to the motor case. The wires connected to this port will be larger than wires connected to the other ports, since they must be capable of carrying the larger motor current. If the motor uses an external cooling fan, it will be connected through this port. In most cases the cooling fan will be powered by single-phase or three-phase AC voltage that remains at a constant level, such as 110 volts AC or 240 volts AC.
FIGURE Diagram of a servo controller. This diagram shows the digi-tal (on-off) signals and the analog signals that are sent to the controller, and the signals the con-troller sends back to the host controller or PLC.
The command signal is sent to the controller through port PI. The terminals for the command signal are 1 and 2. Terminal 1 is + and terminal 2 is —. This signal is a type signal, which means that it is not grounded or does not share a ground potential with any other part of the circuit. Several additional auxiliary signals are also connected through port 1. These signals include inhibit (INH), which is used to disable the drive from an ex-ternal controller, and forward and reverse commands (FAC and RAC), which tell the con-troller to send the voltage to the motor so that it will rotate in the forward or reverse direc-tion. In some applications, the forward maximum travel limit switch and reverse maximum travel limit switch are connected so that if the machine travel moves to the extreme posi-tion so that it touches the overtravel limit switch, it will automatically energize the drive to begin travel in the opposite direction.
Port PI also provides several digital output signals that can be used to send fault signals or other information such as "drive running" back to a host controller or PLC. Port PI basically is the interface for all digital (on-off) signals.
Port P2 is the interface for analog (0-max) signals. Typical signals on this bus include motor current and motor velocity signals that are sent from the servo controller back to the host or PLC where they can be used in verification logic to ensure the con-troller is sending the correct information to the motor. Input signals from the host or PLC can also be sent to the controller to set maximum current and velocity for the drive. In newer digital drives, these values are controlled by drive parameters that are programmed into the drive.
PWM Servo Amplifier
The PWM servo amplifier is used on small-size servo applications that use DC brush-type servomotors. Figure shows a diagram for this type of amplifier. From the diagram you can see that single-phase AC power is provided to the amplifier as the supply at the lower left part of the diagram. The AC voltage is rectified and sent to the output section of the drive that is shown in the top right comer of the diagram. The output s混响室法吸声系数丈量规范GBJ 47⑻3ection of the drive uses four IGBTs to create the pulse-width modulation waveform. The IGBTs are con-nected so that they provide volts DC and up to 30 A to the brush-type DC servo-motor. The polarity of the motor is indicated in the diagram.
The remaining circuits show a variety of fault circuits in the middle of the diagram that originate from the fault logic board and provide an output signal at the bottom of the diagram. You should notice that the fault output signals include overvoltage, overtempera-ture, and overcurrent. A fourth signal is identified as SSO (system status output), which in-dicates the status of the system as faulted anytime a fault has occurred. A jumper is used to set the SSO signal as an 有效供给广大客户再购买实验机的时候1定要慎重斟酌不足状态还较严重open collector output with a logic level "1" indicating the drive is ready, or as a normally closed relay indicating the drive is ready.
The input terminals at the bottom right part of the diagram are used to enable or inhibit the drive, and to select forward amplifier clamp (FAC) or reverse amplifier clamp (RAC). The inhibit signal is used as a control signal, since it inhibits the output stage of the amplifier if it is high. The FAC and RAC signals limit the current in the opposite direction to 5%.
The input signals are shown in the diagram at the upper left side. The VCS (velocity command signal) requires a +VCS and a -VCS signal to provide the differential signal.
Applications for Servo Amplifiers and Motors
You will get a better idea of how servomotors and amplifiers operate if you see some typical applications. Figure shows an example of a servomotor used to control a press feed. In this application sheet material is fed into a press where it is cut off to length with a knife blade or sheer. The sheet material may have a logo or other advertisement that must line up registration marks with the cut-off point. In this application the speed and po-sition of the sheet material must be synchronized with the correct cut-off point. The feed-back sensor could be an encoder or resolver that is coupled with a photoelectric sensor to determine the location of the registration mark. An operator panel is provided so that the operator can jog the system for maintenance to the blades, or when loading a new roll of material. The operator panel could also be used to call up parameters for the drive that cor-respond to each type of material that is used. The system could also be integrated with a programmable controller or other type of controller and the operator panel could be used to select the correct cutoff points for each type of material or product that is run.
FIGURE Diagram of a pulse-width modulator (PWM) amplifier with a brush-type DC servomotor.
FIGURE Appli-cation of a servomotor controlling the speed of material as it enters a press for cutting pieces to size.
188.8.131.52 An Example of a Servo Controlled In-Line Bottle-Filling Application
A second application is shown in Fig. . In this application multiple filling heads line up with bottles as they move along a continuous line. Each of the filling heads must match up with a bottle and track the bottle while it is moving. Product is dispensed as the nozzles move with the bottles. In this application 10 nozzles are mounted on a carriage that is driven by a ball-screw mechanism. The ball-screw mechanism is also called a lead screw. When the motor turns the shaft of the ball screw, the carriage will move horizontally along the length of the ball-screw shaft. This movement will be smooth so that each of the nozzles can dis-pense product into the bottles with little spillage.
The servo drive system utilizes a positioning drive controller with software that allows the position and velocity to be tracked as the conveyor line moves the bottles. A master encoder tracks the bottles as they move along the conveyor line. An auger feed system is also used just prior to the point where the bottles enter the filling station. The auger causes a specific amount of space to be set between each bottle as it enters the filling station. The bottles may be pa以便更实用实际测试的需求cked tightly as they approach the auger, but as they pass through the auger their space is set exactly so that the necks of the bottles will match the spacing of the filling nozzles. A detector is also in conjunction with the dispensing system to ensure that no product is dispensed from a nozzle if a bottle is missing or large spaces appear between bottles.
FIGURE Applica tion of a beverage-filling station controlled by a servomotor.
The servo drive syste虽然不像PLA那样经常使用m compares the position of the bottles from the master encoder to the feedback signal that indicates the position of the filling carriage that is mounted to the ball screw. The servo drive amplifier will increase or decrease the speed of the ball-screw mechanism so that the nozzles will match the speed of the bottles exactly.
184.108.40.206 An Example of a Servo Controlled Precision Auger Filling System
A third application for a servo system is provided in Fig. . In this application a large filling tank is used to fill containers as they pass along a conveyor line. The material that is dispensed into the containers can be a single material fill or it can be one of several mate-rials added to a container that is dumped into a mixer for a blending operation. Since the amount of material that is dispensed into the container must be accurately weighed and metered into the box, an auger that is controlled by a servo system is used. The feedback sensor for this system can be a weighing system such as the load cell discussed in earlier chapters. The command signal can come from a programmable controller or the operator can enter it manually by selecting a recipe from the operator's terminal. The amount of ma-terial can be different from recipe to recipe.
FIGURE Applica-tion of a precision auger filling station controlled by a servomotor.
The speed of the auger can be adjusted so that it runs at high speed when the con-tainer is first being filled, and the speed can be slowed to a point where the final grams of material can be metered precisely as the container is filled to the proper point. As the price of material increases, precision filling equipment can provide savings as well as quality in the amount of product used in the recipe.
220.127.116.11 An Example of a Label Application Using Servomotors
The fourth appli-cation has a servomotor controlling the speed of a label-feed mechanism that pulls preprinted labels from a roll and applies them to packages as they move on a continuous conveyor system past the labeling mechanism. The feedback signals are provided by an encoder that indicates the location of the conveyor, tach generator that indicates the speed of the conveyor, and a sensor that indicates the registration mark on each label. The servo positioning system is controlled by a microprocessor that sets the error signal, and the servo amplifier that provides power signals to the servomotor. This application is shown in Fig. .
FIGURE Example of a labeling application controlled by a servomo-tor.
18.104.22.168 An Example of a Random Timing Infeed System Controlled by a Servomotor
The fifth application is presented in Fig. , and it shows a series of packaging equipment that operates as three separate machines. The timing cycle of each station of the packaging system is independent from the others. The packaging system consists of an infeed conveyor, a positioning conveyor, and a wrapping station. The infeed conveyor and the wrapping station are mechanically connected so that they run at the same speed. The position of the packages on the wrapping station must be strictly controlled so that the packages do not become too close to each other. A piece of metal called a flight is con-nected to the wrapping station conveyor at specific points to ensure each package stays in position. A sensor is mounted at the beginning of the positioning conveyor to determine the front edge of the package when it starts to move onto the positioning conveyor. A second sensor is positioned at the bottom of the packaging conveyor to detect the flights. Both of these signals from the sensors are sent to the servomotor to provide information so the servo can adjust the speed of the positioning conveyor so that each package aligns with one of the flights as it moves onto the packaging conveyor. This application shows that the servo positioning controller can handle a variety of different signals from more than one sensor because the controller uses a microprocessor.
FIGURE Example of a packaging system with random timing func-tions controlled by a servo-motor.